Month: December 2017

Uganda Genocide: What Do We Know About Genocide?

The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1944. He wrote that genocide is “the coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and economic institutions of culture, language, national feelings, religion, economic existence, of national groups and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups. Genocide is directed against the national group as an entity, and the actions involved are directed against individuals, not in their individual capacity, but as members of the national group”(Samuel Totten et al., 2004).

2. In October 1946, a few days after the Nuremberg Tribunal judgment was announced, Cuba, India, Panama and Saudi Arabia demanded that the UN General Assembly correct the limitations on the concept of crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg Trials (1945-46) and the Tokyo Trial (1946) crimes against humanity were included only to the extent they were connected to the war.

3. The Nuremberg Trials and the Tokyo Trial set a new procedure in international law: no one, whether a ruler, a public official, or a private individual, was immune from punishment for war crimes. These crimes included crimes against peace – namely, planning, initiating and waging of wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements, crimes against humanity – extermination, deportations, and genocide; war crimes etc.

4. The UN General Assembly adopted in December 1946 a Resolution 96(a) on the crime of genocide. The resolution mandated the United Nations to draft a treaty on genocide.

5. UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the crime of Genocide was adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly on December 9 1948 as the first human rights treaty, a day before the ratification of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Convention on Genocide was ratified in 1951. The Convention is a compromise document.

6. Article I – The contracting parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of war or in time of peace, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.

7. In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such:

(a)Killing members of the group;
(b)Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d)Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article III – The following acts shall be punishable:
(b)Conspiring to commit genocide;
(c)Direct and public incitement to commit genocide; attempt to commit genocide;
(d)Complicity in genocide.

Article IV – Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials, or private individuals.

The word genocide refers to the destruction of a culture as well as the physical elimination of people (A. Belden Fields 2003) in whole or in part and the taking away of wealth of victims of genocide. The Swiss banks are revealed to have accepted and kept wealth stolen by the Nazis from their Jewish victims (A. Belden Fields 2003).
In some cases like Burundi and East Timor the world pretended not to know or knew very little. “For a long time that was the case with East Timor, where it is estimated that one-third of the population had been killed by the Indonesian military from 1975 to 1999, where there was torture and forced sterilization of women, and where the indigenous language was forbidden (a genocidal measure to destroy a people’s culture and identity). In other cases, there is even active complicity of one or more Western democracies…”(A. Belden Fields 2003).

Diverse strategies are used to carry out genocide. It should be noted that mass killing or physical liquidation is one of many strategies. Genocidal strategies may be direct or indirect, “including economic or biological subjugation”. They may include “killing of the elites (i.e. elicitide); elimination of national (racial, ethnic) culture and religious life with the intent of ‘denationalization’ and ‘prevention of normal family life’ … breaking the linkage between reproduction and socialization of children in the family or group of origin … preventing births within a group”
A consensus exists that genocide is committed with intent to destroy, is structural and systematic, deliberate and organized, sustained and involves a series of purposeful actions. Jack Nusan Porter (1982) wrote that genocide is the deliberate destruction in whole or in part, by government or its agents, of a racial, sexual, religious, tribal or political minority. It can involve not only mass murder, but also starvation, forced deportation, and political, economic and biological subjugation. Genocide involved ideology, technology and bureaucracy/organization. Yehuda Bauer (1984) mentions selective mass murder of elites or parts of the population and the intention to denationalization, enslavement and destruction of economic life (Adam Jones 2006).

Genocide in Uganda: Some have described the wars, destruction of property or grabbing there of in Luwero Triangle, northern and eastern regions as genocide which has continued after the conflicts ended. Using the information provided above is it possible to establish a concrete case so that at least we can stop its continuation into the future and spread to or intensification in other regions? Apart from loss of lives are there other cases like loss of properties say land taken over from survivors using different means? For example, what happened to the properties like buildings in towns and money of the victims in the banks at home and possibly abroad? Did the survivors reclaim them? If not, why not?

The genocide convention is about prevention and punishment of those involved as described above. What we have learned is that genocide is more than merely destroying a targeted group in a time of conflict. It includes destroying a culture of a group that loses identity. It involves impoverishing and rendering a group powerless and voiceless through reducing its population growth, scattering it people around and taking its properties especially land. Genocide can happen silently in time of peace and can take a long time to achieve. Where do we stand in Uganda where allegations of genocide have been made?

6 Ways to Get in the Mood

Problem No. 1: Same Old, Same Old

The Solution: Spice It Up

“When you’re in a long-term relationship, you get into a routine,” says Renee Horowitz, MD, an obstetrician-gynecologist and founder of the Center for Sexual Wellness in Farmington Hills, Mich. “There’s biological evidence that novel experiences cause the release of dopamine in the brain.” (Dopamine is a chemical messenger that’s connected to the pleasure center in your brain.) “That’s why it’s so much easier to get excited in a new relationship — everything is novel and your brain responds accordingly.”

Obviously, you can’t switch partners every time the excitement wanes. Instead, change up some of the other factors. “Try a different place, a different time, a different position,” Horowitz suggests. Have a morning quickie. Try sex in the shower, or on the kitchen island. (Clean up afterward.)

Problem No. 2: Too Much to Do, Too Tired

The Solution: Take a Romantic Break

All couples are tired at the end of a long day with many demands. By the time you get everyone to bed and deal with unavoidable chores, you just don’t have the energy for a romantic evening.

It’s time to change that.

“You have to prioritize what’s important,” says sex educator Sadie Allison, a member of the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists. Her best-selling books include Ride ‘Em Cowgirl! and Tickle Your Fancy. “Tired as you might be, it’s OK to just make it a quickie sometimes. Sex is so important to the overall health of your relationship.”

Instead of waiting until just before you put out the lights, take a break for a romantic encounter beforethe evening’s chores. “Make space and time where you can escape and get creative,” Allison says. Even if that time is in your house (or car, or backyard). “Look, it isn’t going to happen spontaneously,” Allison says. “You have to find the time and make a date.”

Problem No. 3: ‘Who Are You?’

How to Be Big and Beautiful

Make sure your hair is working for you. Get a cut that flatters your face shape and keeps head to body proportions in mind. (Note, too long hair on plus sized ladies often drags the body down. Too short hair gives the “pin head” effect, that of a small head on a larger body.) Often, dying it a shade or two darker or lighter can make a much more striking appearance than “mousy” hair color. If your natural hair color is boring, consider finding out about your color type and dying it a more flattering shade. (Cold or warm color types, or if more in depth, the seasons: Spring, Fall, Winter, and Summer. This information can be found in color type analysis books, and is also very useful in picking out make up and clothing colors that flatter you the most.)

Take the time to apply make up. A well made up face, but not overly dramatic that makes you look like a clown, presents a well groomed image. Learn to accentuate your best features and how to contour your face. (Get a make up consultation or invest in a book on applying make up.) In general, taking care of yourself will give people an impression of confidence and self worth. The confidence you will feel from being well maintained, will make your great personality the thing people remember about you, not the few extra pounds.

Invest in your teeth, and maintain your skin. Keep your nails well groomed. These small things make a huge difference. Looking healthy and clean is always attractive!

Find at least 5 things about yourself that you like, and think about those when you get down. Perhaps write them down so you can look at them whenever you need to Take the time to showcase those features. For example, do you have pretty hands? Then wear nice rings and maintain your nails.

Fake it! No one is completely body confident. Be positive about yourself to others, and others will see you in that light. Nothing makes a person look more unattractive to others, regardless of weight, than a person who is constantly make self depreciating comments. However, if you seem happy and confident with the way you look, people will be drawn to your personality. Remember also many men find larger women attractive.

Make clothing work for you. Get a book on body proportion analysis (or image consulting guides), and figure out what cuts work for your body type. (For example, straight leg jeans balance wide hips, so keep away from jeans that taper!) Never wear too baggy, it will make you larger then you are. Never wear too tight clothing, it will accentuate your problem spots. Wear well fitted cuts, they will put you in the best light. You do not need to limit yourself to black, although darker colors do slenderize, but also be wary of too extremely bright colors and patterns that scream circus tent. Basic pieces can also be jazzed up through bold and creative accessories, which are always conversation starters.

Take from the trends what works for you. If you have trouble looking for trendy clothes that fit your size then consider wearing more timeless pieces and making them up to date with cheap trendy accessories that you will only wear for the season. Wear only one or two trendy pieces to look in, less is always more. Otherwise have good quality accessories to make an outfit. Invest in good pieces, they often have a longer life then your clothes. Good shoes, bags, and jewelry can make an cheap outfit look more expensive.

Get regular exercise, with physician’s o.k. Regular work outs such as walking and swimming are great and help to tone your muscles, give you a healthy glow, help you to feel great and move more gracefully.

Eid ul-Fitr – What You Didn’t Know

Written by Ahmed Mulindwa

I was having a conversation with my friend who asked me what Eid ul-Fitr is all about. I explained to him what this festival means and also thought that some readers of the Uganda Citizen might be interested hence this piece.

Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr sometimes abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan. Eid’ is an Arabic word meaning “festivity”, while Fiá¹­r’ means “to break the fast” so symbolizes the breaking of the Ramadan fasting period.

Eid ul-Fitr is celebrated by Muslims after the day Ramadan ends, and is verified by the sighting of the crescent moon. On Eid day Muslims are advised to donate items or give money to the poor and sometimes mosques provide food for anyone that comes for prayers. Congregational eating at mosques is very crucial as it symbolizes sharing and brotherhood.

On Eid day Muslims wake up early, take ablution (Ghusl’) and perform their first prayers before they attend the main congregational prayers at the mosques. Believers are advised to wear their best clothes and perfumes (men) and if possible take a different route to and from the mosque. Muslims believe that on this day angels from heaven line-up along the routes to mosques and bless those going to attend the prayers. Hence it is advisable to take different routes on the way to and from the mosque.

The congregational prayer is generally short and is followed by a sermon (khuá¹­ba’). Muslims greet and embrace each other with hugs in a spirit of peace and love after praying. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH ) advised Muslims to make visits to the homes of relatives and friends as well as the lonely or the sick in hospitals.

Generally Eid ul-Fitr is a day of forgiveness, moral victory, peace of congregation, fellowship, brotherhood and unity. It is a time for making amends and share with those in need but most importantly thanking Allah for giving Muslims the health and the strength to fast in the holy month of Ramadan.

NB. Peace Be Upon Him’ (PBUH) – this phrase is used whenever prophet Muhammad’s name is mentioned as a sign of respect and devotion.